Works Cited

SS8H10 Primary sources with annotations

SS8H10 a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth

1. United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Services, “Historical Crop Estimates (Georgia),” (accessed on 30 January 2011).

This website contains historical crop estimates for almost every agricultural crop grown in Georgia.  The start year varies by crop, but most extend back to the late nineteenth century.  This same website also contains historical data on livestock production in Georgia, including data on poultry production from 1934-2005.

Livestock information is available as an Excel file at:

2. The Georgia Poultry Laboratory Network, “Georgia Poultry Facts,” (accessed on 19 February 2011).

How many eggs do Georgia chicken farmers produce a day?  Check out the quick Georgia Poultry facts on this page.

3.  Georgia’s Virtual Vault,, (accessed on 19 February 2011).

Georgia’s Virtual Vault contains photos of various industries, crops, buildings, and ways of life.

4.  “Agriculture and Technology,” Georgia Stories on Georgia Public Broadcasting, (accessed on 23 February 2011).

This is an interesting video that contrasts agricultural practices in the 1940s with agricultural practices of today.

 SS8H10 b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.

5.  Google Earth,, (accessed on 19 February 2011).

Google Earth is a great way to view any location using both ground and satellite images. You can use it to view historic satellite maps of different regions of Georgia.

6. Georgia’s Official State Highway & Transportation Maps,, (accessed on 11 February 2011).

Farmers had to get crops to market, so the development of good roads and federal and state highways went hand-in-hand with agricultural development.  In addition, better roads contributed to an important non-agricultural crop – suburbs.  As road conditions improved, commuters were able to move farther from their jobs.  By using the maps on this web site, you can see how Georgia’s transportation becomes more dependent on trucks and cars and how Atlanta and other cities become transportation hubs.  All maps are available in pdf format for easy magnification and use.

7. The Digital Library of Georgia, “Civil Rights Digital Library,” (accessed on 13 February 2011).

The “Civil Rights Digital Library” is a digital archive documenting the history of Georgia’s path to freedom and equal rights for all citizens. This website offers multimedia resources for all the key activists in Georgia. There are numerous resources for both Mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen Jr. that include political cartoons, television news broadcasts, and newspaper articles.

8. The Digital Library of Georgia, “Georgia Info,” (accessed on 14 February 2011).

This site is another branch of the Digital Library of Georgia. It offers information on voting districts, historic and modern maps of the state and its cities, state and local government, and Georgia history. It includes some original work, but its main purpose is to offer students and educators trusted links to find information on the state.

9. “Ivan Allen Jr., 92, Dies; Led Atlanta as Beacon of Change,” The New York Times, (accessed on 14 February 2011).

Former Atlanta mayor Ivan Allen, Jr., changed from a segregationist to a champion of desegregation.  Serving after William B. Hartsfield, mayor of Atlanta for twenty-five years, and before Maynard Jackson, Atlanta’s first African-American mayor, Allen was a bridge between the two extremes.

10. Bisher, Furman. “A Major League Boost for the Economy” in Atlanta Magazine, August 1964,  (accessed on 14 February 2011).

What exactly does having a major league sports team mean to the city of Atlanta in dollars and cents?  In this article, written by Furman Bisher, former sports editor for The Atlanta Journal-Constitution in 1964 when the Atlanta stadium was under construction, Bisher outlines how much Atlanta will benefit. According to Bisher, every time there’s a major league game in Atlanta the city will gain financially and garner international attention.

11. The Atlanta Time Machine, (accessed on 19 February 2011).

This site features a wonderful collection of photographs and postcards from Atlanta through the years.  The Atlanta Airport collection is particularly interesting.

12., “Q&A with home run king Hank Aaron,” (accessed on 23 February 2011).

Hank Aaron discusses his long career as an Atlanta Brave and his historic run for Babe Ruth’s all time home run record.

13.  “Atlanta: Stokely’s Spark,” in Time Magazine, Sept. 16, 1966,,9171,836360,00.html (accessed on 22 February 2011).

Here’s another discussion of the 1966 Summerhill Riot, but this time it’s from an African-American point of view.

14.  “Enterprise: Atlanta’s Beat Goes On,” in Time Magazine, July 24, 1972,,9171,906175,00.html (accessed on 22 February 2011).

A recap of Atlanta’s growth, economic changes, and racial changes during the 1970s.

15.  “The Nation: A New Day A’Coming in the South,” in Time Magazine, May 31, 1971,,9171,944407-2,00.html (accessed on 23 February 2011).

The writer of this article reviews Georgia’s progress (or lack thereof) right after Jimmy Carter announced his presidential candidacy.

16.  “Inaugural Address as Governor of Georgia,” The Jimmy Carter Library and Museum, January 12, 1971, (accessed on 23 February 2011).

As Carter addresses Georgia, he states that the time for racial discrimination is over, and that Georgia must move forward.

17.  “Take Me out to the Ballgame,” Georgia Stories on Georgia Public Broadcasting, (accessed on 23 February 2011).

Cool archival footage of the Atlanta Crackers, Atlanta’s minor league ball team from 1901-1965.

18.  “Atlanta’s Example,” Georgia Stories on Georgia Public Broadcasting, (accessed on 23 February 2011).

If you were African-American in the 1960s, you couldn’t eat at most lunch counters or even drink from the same water fountain as whites could.  This video examines how city leaders, both black and white, worked together to end segregation in Atlanta.

SS8H10 c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.

19. “Georgia: Return of a Moderate,” in Time Magazine, September 23, 1966,,9171,842799,00.html (accessed on 22 February 2011).

This article gives an overview of the August, 1966, primary results, in which Lester Maddox beat Ellis Arnall in the governor’s race.

20. “Georgia: Strictly from Dixie,” in Time Magazine, January 27, 1947,,9171,778875,00.html (accessed on 23 February 2011).

Although this article is written with sarcasm, it does explain something about the behind the scene manipulations that resulted in Georgia having “three governors.”  Discriminating readers can also pick up on how the national writers viewed the south.  Middle school students might not understand.

21. “U.S. at War: Exit Gene Talmadge,” in Time Magazine, September 21, 1942,,9171,773569-2,00.html (accessed on 23 February 2011).

The writer of this article contrasts the style of outgoing governor Gene Talmadge with incoming governor Ellis Arnall and gives some background on Arnall.  Discriminating readers may feel that the south is being maligned by the reader’s sarcastic tone.  This might be lost on middle school students.

SS8H10 Annotated Bibliography of Secondary Sources

SS8H10 a. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth

1. Jackson, Edwin L., Mary E. Stakes, Lawrence R. Hepburn, Mary A. Hepburn.  The Georgia Studies Book: Our State and the Nation, 2nd Edition.  Athens, Georgia: Carl Vinson Institute of Government and the University of Georgia, 2004.

This book was written to correspond with the Georgia Performance Standards.  On pages 318-320 there is a discussion about the impact of the transformation of agriculture while pages 332-334 discuss the development of Atlanta, William B. Hartsfield, Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports.  The book contains an excellent graph of how the number of farms has decreased.

2. Toon, John D. “Interstate Highway System” in the New Georgia Encyclopedia, (accessed on 12 February 2011).

This article is a detailed history of Georgia’s interstate highways and how they began to link Georgia to the rest of the nation.

S8H10 b. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.

3. Clarence N. Stone, Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, 1946-1988, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1989.

Regime Politics is a political history of Atlanta’s mayor’s office and how it remained successful during a racially charged period in the states history.  This offers an in-depth analysis of William B. Hartsfield’s and Ivan Allen, Jr.’s roles in Atlanta politics and argues that there was very little conflict in the city hall because these politicians worked closely with wealthy business owners and fought for the underprivileged as well.

4. Frederick Allen, Atlanta Rising: The Invention of an International City, 1946-1996, Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1996.

The author, Frederick Allen, is a former CNN news reporter. His book Atlanta Rising illustrates the lives of Georgia leading men and women. These men and women helped make the state and Atlanta more renowned internationally through their political and social activism. It also offers biographical information about William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr. showing the great strides they made in transportation, attracting tourism, and sports teams.

5. Pomerantz, Gary M. Where Peachtree Meets Sweet Auburn: The Saga of Two Families and the Making of Atlanta. New York: Scribner, 1996.

While researching two Atlanta mayors, Ivan Allen Jr. and Maynard Jackson, Gary Pomerantz began to see that, the two men seemingly came from different worlds though they lived only blocks away from each other. One came from a wealthy family while the other was the descendant of slaves. This book gives a personal look at Ivan Allen, Jr. and his family in the difficult years after the Civil War through the Civil Rights Movement.

6. Martin, Harold W. William Berry Hartsfield: Mayor of Atlanta, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1978.

This book is a biography of William Berry Hartsfield written by author/journalist Harold H. Martin. It chronicles the 28 years that Hartsfield served as mayor of Atlanta and his role as a civil rights activist and business promoter.

7. Williams, Louis. “William Berry Hartsfield and Atlanta Politics: The Formative Years of an Urban Reformer, 1920-1936.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 84, winter 2000.

This journal article is relevant to our groups Georgia Performance Standard because it provides background information on William Hartsfield. We can use this source to show how Hartsfield became a leading civil rights activist and powerful leader in the state.

8. Bayor, Ronald H. Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta primarily deals with how race relations influenced the growth of Atlanta, but it also looks at issues of class and gender. This is important because Georgia Performance Standard S8H10 b. deals with William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr. and they were both staunch advocates of equal rights for all citizens of Georgia.

9. Shavin, Norman and Bruce Galphin.  Atlanta: Triumph of a People. Atlanta: Capricorn Corporation, 1982.

Triumph of a People is a coffee-table type book, but it contains many photos of Atlanta locations, politicians, and personalities through the ages.  Short chapters and pertinent facts accompany the photos.  It’s a great quick reference for things like the Winecoff Hotel Fire, the 1962 Orly crash that killed so many prominent Atlantans, mass transportation, creating a bigger, better downtown Atlanta, and building the Atlanta stadium and coaxing the Braves to Atlanta to play in it. There are also sections on Robert W. Woodruff, Ivan Allen, Jr., Martin Luther King, Jr., and William B. Hartsfield. Norman Shavin was editor and publisher of Atlanta Magazine and the Sunday editor of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.  Bruce Galphin was Associate Editor of The Atlanta Constitution.

10. “International Civil Rights Walk of Fame,” Martin Luther King, Jr., Historic Site, (accessed 22 February 2011).

This site has links to biographies of several civil rights leaders, many of whom are from Atlanta.  The list includes Braves player Hank Aaron and Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr.

11. “Center History,” The Woodruff Arts Center, (accessed 22 February 2011).

This website details the creation of the Woodruff Arts Center that emerged in the aftermath of the plane crash in 1962 in Orly, France, that killed 130 prominent Atlantans.

12. Teel, Leonard Ray.  “How Six Flags Came to Cobb County.” Research Library, Georgia Trend, (1) 2 (10), 99.  June 1987.  (accessed on 14 February 2011.

Six Flags Over Georgia almost didn’t happen in Atlanta, or at least not at it’s current location. Author Leonard Teel discusses how the park that then-Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. called the “first major operation like it in Atlanta” couldn’t get the land needed for easy I-20 access. Land acquisitions went right down to the wire and Six Flags became an immediate success with over one million visitors in the first year.
13. “Our Town: Four Decades of Atlanta.” Atlanta Magazine, v 41 no 1 p 89-142, 2001-05,  41:1, 89-142.

Writer Paul Hemphill details how Ivan Allen, Jr.’s actions on September 6, 1966, helped to calm rioting citizens of Summerhill in Atlanta.  Another article, “The Cable Guy,” written by Keith Dunnavant, spotlights how Ted Turner shook up Atlanta television by introducing an alternative station (channel 17) in the 1970s.

14. Ivan Allen Jr. B. 1911. Maynard H. Jackson Jr. B. 1938: Crossing Class Lines by Diane McWhorter, New York: New York Times Magazine,  P. 12-28, 42, 2003.

Ivan Allen, Jr. and Maynard Jackson, Jr. died just days apart in 2003.  McWhorter discusses how although they started out so differently yet ended up so similar with the same goal of  making Atlanta a better place.

15. Allen, Frederick.  “Last dance at the Commerce Club.” Georgia Trend, vol. 1  ed. 8(5), 34,  Research Library, January 1993. (accessed on 14  February 2011).

Frederick Allen discusses how the white politicians and power brokers of the 1960s gradually lost their grip on the city of Atlanta.

16. “Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956: Creating the Interstate System,” adapted from Weingroff, Richard F., Summer 1996, Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, Creating the Interstate System: Public Roads, v. 60, no. 1.  (accessed on 21 February 2011).

This interesting article details the background of the Interstate highway system, many of which criss-cross Georgia today.

17. “The Atlanta Hawks.”, (accessed on 21 February 2011).

18. “The Atlanta Braves.”, (accessed on 21 February 2011).

19. “The Atlanta Falcons.”, (accessed on 21 Februart 2011).

These three pages discuss the history of Atlanta’s professional sports teams, including former names, coaches, where they played, and historical moments in their history.

SS8H10 c. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall.

20. Henderson, Harold Paulk. The Politics of Change in Georgia: A Political Biography of Ellis Arnal., University of Georgia Press: Athens, 1991.

According to Henderson, Ellis Arnall refused to “play it safe” when he was elected governor.  Henderson states that Arnall changed Georgia from provincialism to progressive.  Many of the changes that Arnall made still affect Georgia politics today, including his decision to obey the 1945 court decision that eliminated the all-white primary.